Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi’s iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events

Frantz, Laurent A. F., Rudzinski, A., Mansyursyah Surya Nugraha, A., Evin, A., Burton, J., Hulme-Beaman, A., Linderholm, A., Barnett, R., Vega, R., Irving-Pease, E., Haile, J., Allen, R., Leus, K., Shephard, J., Hillyer, M., Gillemot, S., van den Hurk, J., Ogle, S., Atofanei, C., Thomas, M., Johansson, F., Haris Mustari, A., Williams, J., Mohamad, K., Siska Damayanti, C., Djuwita Wiryadi, I., Obbles, D., Mona, S., Day, H., Yasin, M., Meker, S., McGuire, J., Evans, B., von Rintelen, T., Hoult, S., Searle, J., Kitchener, A., Macdonald, A., Shaw, D., Hall, R., Galbusera, P. and Larson, G. (2018) Synchronous diversification of Sulawesi’s iconic artiodactyls driven by recent geological events. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

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Abstract

The high degree of endemism on Sulawesi has previously been suggested to have vicariant origins, dating back 40 Myr ago. Recent studies, however, suggest that much of Sulawesi’s fauna assembled over the last 15 Myr. Here, we test the hypothesis that more recent uplift of previously submerged portions of land on Sulawesi promoted diversification, and that much of its faunal assemblage is much younger than the island itself. To do so, we combined palaeogeographical reconstructions with genetic and morphometric data sets derived from Sulawesi’s three largest mammals: the Babirusa, Anoa, and Sulawesi warty pig.

Our results indicate that although these species most likely colonized the area that is now Sulawesi at different times (14 Myr ago to 2-3 Myr ago), they experienced an almost synchronous expansion from the central part of the island. Geological reconstructions indicate that this area was above sea level for most of the last 4 Myr, unlike most parts of the island. We conclude that emergence of land on Sulawesi (~1–2 Myr) may have allowed species to expand synchronously. Altogether, our results indicate that the establishment of the highly endemic faunal assemblage on Sulawesi was driven by geological events over the last few million years.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Wallacea; biogeography; evolution; geology
Subjects: Q Science
Q Science > Q Science (General) > Q0002 General
Q Science > QE Geology
Q Science > QE Geology > QE0701 Paleontology
Q Science > QE Geology > QE0760.8 Paleozoology
Q Science > QH Natural history
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH0001 General including nature conservation, geographical distribution
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH0001 General including nature conservation, geographical distribution > QH077 Nature conservation
Q Science > QL Zoology
Q Science > QL Zoology > QL0605 Chordates. Vertebrates > QL0700 Mammals
Q Science > QL Zoology > QL0799 Morphology
Divisions: Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences > School of Human and Life Sciences
Depositing User: Dr Rodrigo Vega
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2018 10:10
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2018 10:34
URI: https://create.canterbury.ac.uk/id/eprint/17055

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Last edited: 29/06/2016 12:23:00